quinta-feira, 3 de junho de 2010

BGP - Local-AS Feature

1        Funcionalidade Local-AS

A funcionalidade local-AS permite que o roteador se apresente pertencendo a um segundo AS além do seu AS atual. Essa funcionalidade somente pode ser usada com vizinhos eBGP reais, não podendo ser usada para em roteadores de sub-AS de confederação.
O Local-As não poder ser o mesmo do AS do vizinho remoto, pois é um recurso de eBGP.
Esse recurso é utilizado quando um ISP compra um outro ISP e ocorre a transição do AS ou não há interesse em mudar o AS antigo.
O comando “no-prepend” pode ser usado no final do comando do Local-AS para que não seja adicionado o Local AS no anuncio da rota para outros links eBGP diferentes do link que usa o Local-AS.

2        Cenário

2.1           Objetivo

Quatro roteadores (R1, R2, R3 e R4) são conectados fisicamente R1-R2-R3-R4 e devem ser configurados com roteamento BGP seguindo os criterios abaixo:
         Os roteadores R2 e R3 deverão pertencer ao AS 23, fazer iBGP entre si usando suas loopbacks, se anunciar como next-hop para rotas extermas e possuir como IGP o OSPF na área 0 divulgando suas interfaces físicas, porém as interfaces externas do AS deverão ficar no modo passivo;
         O roteador R2 deverá fazer eBGP usando o AS local 2 com o R1 (AS 1) e o roteador R3 deverá fazer eBGP com o R4 (AS 4) usando o AS local 3 com no-prepend;
         Os roteadores R1 e R4 deverão anunciar somente seus endereços de loopback no BGP.

2.2           Topologia

Figure-01:              Topologia

2.3           IOS utilizados

         R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 e R6 – c7200-js-mz.123-7.T.bin

2.4           Configuração dos Roteadores

Em todos os roteadores, antes de configurar o roteamento BGP, deve-se configurar o IGP, ou seja, o roteamento interno para que os roteadores possam conhecer o endereço IP para fechar a conexão BGP e também para que a rota seja divulgada na tabela de roteamento BGP. Esse IGP pode ser OSPF, ISIS, estático, etc.

2.4.1      Configurações do OSPF

Para o OSPF a configuração é feita pelo comando “router ospf ” onde o “processo” é um numero do processo OSPF. Para adicionar interfaces usa-se o comando “network
area ”. Para o roteador fazer vizinhança OSPF é necessário que a rede da interface esteja no comando “network” e a interface não esteja configurada como “passive-interface”.
As interfaces de borda dos roteadores de borda são configuradas como “passive-interface” dentro das configurações de roteamento.

2.4.2      Configurações do BGP

No BGP, agora que os roteadores conhecem os endreços IPs de seus vizinhos pelo IGP, configura-se-o em todos os roteadores pelo comando “router bgp ” onde o “AS” é o Autonomous System do provedor. Dentro da configuração de BGP adicionam-se os vizinhos estaticamente com o comando “neighbor remote-as ”, onde se o for igual ao AS do roteador a conexão é IBGP, se for diferente será EBGP.
Adiciona-se o IP da interface loopback como Router-ID pelo comando “router-id ”. Para divulgar rede no BGP é necessário que a rede exista na tabela de roteamento interna e ou adicionar o comando “network mask ” ou redistribuindo rotas para o BGP com o comando “redistribute ”.
Para usar a interface loopback como IP de origem para estabelecer a conexão BGP, deve-se adicionar o comando “neighbor update-source loopback0”.
Para que o roteador que faz eBGP se apresente como o next-hop para o proprío AS para as rotas externas, usa-se o comando “neighbor next-hop-self”.
As configurações de BGP atualmente podem ser feitas dentro da família de endereçamento IPv4, ou seja, dentro da configuração de roteamento entra-se no “address-family ipv4” e configuram-se as vizinhanças, router-reflector, community, route-map, etc.

2.5           Observações e Bugs


2.6           Comandos Importantes de Verificação

R1#show ip bgp
BGP routing table entry for, version 3
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
  Not advertised to any peer
  2 23 3 4 from (
      Origin IGP, localpref 100, valid, external, best

R4#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 3, local router ID is
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
              r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

   Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*>                             0 3 23 2 1 i
*>                  0         32768 i

2.7           R1

router bgp 1
 bgp router-id
 neighbor remote-as 2
 address-family ipv4
 neighbor activate
 network mask

2.8           R2

router ospf 23
 network area 0
 network area 0
router bgp 23
 bgp router-id
 neighbor remote-as 23
 neighbor update-source Loopback0
 neighbor remote-as 1
 neighbor local-as 2
 address-family ipv4
 neighbor activate
 neighbor next-hop-self
 neighbor activate

2.9           R3

router ospf 23
 network area 0
 network area 0
router bgp 23
 bgp router-id
 neighbor remote-as 23
 neighbor update-source Loopback0
 neighbor remote-as 4
 neighbor local-as 3 no-prepend
 address-family ipv4
 neighbor activate
 neighbor next-hop-self
 neighbor activate

2.10     R4

router bgp 4
 bgp router-id
 neighbor remote-as 3
 address-family ipv4
 neighbor activate
 network mask

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